History of Biological Discoveries and Some Autoimmune Diseases

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History of Biological Discoveries and Some Autoimmune Diseases

Today we will be discussing some of the Biological Discoveries and Scientific Developments and then we will look at what is autoimmune disease.

Scientific Development

Inventions and discoveries are recurring events. Discoveries in the field of Life sciences, microbiology, botany, genetics, zoology, and biotechnology occur in our day-to-day life. Scientific development deals with the discoveries that are important in the field of science along with their discoverers and the latest scientific development going around the world. Some of the Important developments in the biology field are given below-
● Discoveries of Biological Species
● Vaccines Inventions
● Discovery of Vitamins
● Discovery of Medical Inventions
It is a vast topic and you can visit here to know more about this in detail.
Let us move further and talk about autoimmune diseases.

What is Autoimmune Disease?

Autoimmunity is a condition that is characterized by the existence of self-reactive lymphocytes (T-cells) and serum autoantibodies. It shows that sometimes when the body deprives of immune tolerance (the body's ability to differentiate between its self-antigens from foreign non-self-antigens and not mounting on the immunogenic affecting against the former) and mounts an immune attack which is abnormal, with either antibodies or T-cells, against the self-antigens of a person. Some of the common autoimmune diseases are mentioned below–
● Rheumatoid arthritis.
● Psoriasis,
● Multiple sclerosis,
● Inflammatory bowel disease,
● Graves' disease,
● Diabetes mellitus type 1,
● Celiac disease,
Further in this article, we will be looking at some of these common autoimmune
diseases.

Celiac Disease

Celiac sprue or celiac disease or gluten-sensitive enteropathy is caused by an immune reaction that happens after eating gluten which is a protein present in barley, wheat, and rye.

Causes

1. Damaging of small intestine’s villi due to gluten
2. Family history
3. Pregnancy, surgery, viral infection, childbirth, or severe emotional stress can
trigger the diseases

Symptoms

1. Abdominal ache
2. Anemia
3. Bloating and gas
4. Constipation
5. Dermatitis herpetiformis causing itch, blister
6. Diarrhea
7. Digestive Disorders
8. Fatigue
9. Hyposplenism
10. Joint pain
11. Mouth ulcers
12. Nausea, vomiting
13. Osteoporosis or Osteomalacia
14. Weight loss

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

Diabetes happens when the blood sugar content or blood glucose rises high. Blood glucose is crucial in our body as it is the main energy source. Glucose is acquired from the food we eat. A hormone made by the pancreas, insulin, assists the glucose in your blood to go into your cells to be used for energy. Insulin scarcity leads to the collection of blood sugar in the blood leading to diabetes.

Causes

Immune system attacks and destroys the pancreas beta cells which produce insulin
Symptoms
1. Blurred visions
2. The frequency of urination and thirst increases
3. Fatigue is constant
4. Hunger is increased
5. The feet or hands feel numbness or tingling
6. Sores that do not heal
7. Weight loss is unexplained

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis potentially disables the CNS (central nervous system). The immune system attacks Myelin, which is CNS’s protective sheath. Nerve fibers are covered by myelin. This leads to connection issues between your body and the brain.

Causes

The immune system of the body fails and attacks myelin, the protective sheath of the CNS.

Symptoms

1. Dizziness
2. Fatigue
3. Pain tingling in parts of your body
4. Partial or complete vision loss
5. Problems with bowel, sexual, and bladder function
6. Slurred speech

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Malfunctioning of the immune system causes prolonged inflammation of the digestive tract.

Causes

An abnormal immune response leads the immune system to attack the digestive tract cells to fight off an invading virus or bacterium.

Symptoms

1. Abdominal pain and cramping
2. Blood in your stool
3. Diarrhea
4. Fatigue
5. Reduced appetite
6. Unintended weight loss

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